|Storybook seals likely leaving the can-do City of Opportunity
TUESDAY, JAN. 24: Last night at city hall, the Community Services Standing Committee voted 4-1 to recommend relocating all the wildlife, including the harbour seals, at Storybook Gardens to out-of-town facilities in Canada and the U.S.
Only committee member Coun. Dale Henderson (pictured left) voted against the recommendation. The matter goes to City Council next Tuesday night (Jan. 31).
2008 Business Plan proposed improving popular wildlife enclosures at Storybook Gardens
The following sentence is from the 2008 council-approved Business Plan for Storybook Gardens:
"Although the reduction to only farm animals is quite attractive from a financial perspective, it would have a drastic impact on the marketability of Storybook Gardens and we recommend maintaining a 'Modified Zoo and Farm.'”
TRANSLATION: City staff are now wanting to implement what they once said would "have a drastic impact on the marketability of Storybook Gardens" in 2008, noting the "modified zoo and farm" concept meant keeping the popular seals and a few other wildlife exhibits.
No wonder some council members are confused.
Regarding the remaining wildlife at Storybook Gardens, this "added" report is going before the Community Services Committee tonight at 7 pm, Jan. 23
FROM THE REPORT: "The modified zoo option was presented and endorsed in 2008 recognized that the Storybook
Gardens zoo enclosures are aging and do not meet cunent best practices and public expectations for the housing of captive wildlife. The 'modified zoo' approach anticipated maintaining the seal pool and possibly as many as 2-3 other main [wildlife] exhibits, the remaining exhibits were to be enhanced and improved as funding allowed. Subsequent investigation into renovation of the existing enclosures to bring them up to current standards is estimated to be in the millions of dollars and far exceeds available funding."
TRANSLATION: City staff's original plan was to keep and improve the sea pool and a few other wildlife exhibits at Storybook but City staff changed their minds.
Proposed seal move from Storybook Gardens making waves, LFP, Jan. 23
I just put in an order for a hundred T-shirts with "Save the Seals!" emblazoned on the front. Figure it works for animal rights activists and me
Time to leave the City of Opportunity behind, LCW, Jan. 23
Slippery the Sea Lion had the right idea back in 1958. Ditto for the Lombardo orchestra in 1924. Let's blow this pop stand! Senior City managers Jeff Fielding, Pat McNally and Ron Standish are leaving at the end of January 2012!
If one actually reads the 2008 Business Plan, getting rid of all the wildlife was not proposed. Improving the most popular wildlife exhibits was proposed.
Perhaps there's been a coup at London city hall, with community services staff successfully executing the takeover.
VIDEO: Thousands Rally in London, Ontario, CTV-London, Jan. 22
Mayor calls out PM at labour rally, LFP, Jan. 22
Civic Works Committee agenda regarding water fluoridation ~ public participation meeting on Jan. 25
It's time for another ballot question. 45 years is too long
Tax-and-spend levy-slush fund dead ~ for now; first they have to figure out what they'd do with OUR money, LFP, Jan. 21
CIVIC SNAKEOIL: First Mayor Joe et al. tried to sell us a bill of goods regarding restructuring London Hydro in order to make it more attractive to sell to Edmonton-based utility giant EPCOR and that idea crashed-and-burned; then they wanted to whack us all with a "1%-economic-development levy" and that slush-fund scheme swirled down the toilet. But rest assured they'll try again on both fronts in the not-to-distant future. After all, London is the City of Opportunity. P.S. Which way to the urban beach?
Baseball Canada's favourite ballpark banner to be unveiled at Labatt Park on July 14
BREAKING NEWS, JAN. 21: Another AltLondon news exclusive ~ AltLondon has learned the City of London will be unveiling "Baseball Canada's Favourite Ballpark banner" ~ won last summer by historic Labatt Memorial Park after a two-month online contest conducted by Baseball Canada ~ during London's Eager Beaver Baseball Association (EBBA)'s annual Frank Colman Day at the park on Saturday, July 14, 2012.
BREAKING NEWS: End of an era at London's Storybook Gardens
ARCHIVAL VIDEO: The legend of Slippery the Seal, Channel 10, 1958
Slippery the Seal was a superstar in 1958, CDN, Jan. 21
The Saga of Slippery the Sea Lion, DD, Jan. 21
THIS JUST IN, 12 PM, JAN. 20: An AltLondon scoop ... Bowing to pressure from organizations such as Zoocheck Canada et al., the City of London/ Storybook Gardens will be re-locating their non-domesticated animals later this year, including the harbour seals, beavers, otter, lynx and birds of prey to better wildlife facilities in the U.S. and Canada.
The City of London was close to spending $600-K on a 10-day light show in the downtown but it seems it never occurred to our civic brain-trust to upgrade the facilities for the animals at Storybook Gardens. The most recent public input regarding Storybook Gardens was in 2008 ~ with a previous city council.
And yet community services department staff have announced this wildlife relocation from Storybook is a done deal with only a "verbal" report by City staff mentioned online. NEW: A written report, apparently, will be available on the City's website on Monday morning, according to a Friday afternoon media release from the City.
City staff's recent decision to unload ALL wildlife at Storybook Gardens is not proposed in the Business Plan from 2008
In the 2008 Business Plan (on which public participation and council action were based), there were no plans to unload ALL wildlife. In fact, improvements were proposed to the respective enclosures (seal sea pool, otter, beaver etc.) and staff reported "The sea pool [housing the seals] is the most popular animal exhibit in the park."
ALTERNATE POINT OF VIEW RECEIVED BY E-MAIL: "This process has been very open and transparent ~ it just has not been of great public interest and has occurred over time.
"There was a Public Participation process in April of 2008 to discuss a new future for Storybook. This was openly advertised and there was a PPM.
"The PPM was covered in The London Free Press in advance of the actual meeting, and there was still only a very small list of delegates, so this was not a burning issue for Londoners.
"Later, a Citizen Task Force was created ~ again, openly advertised and open to any Londoner to apply for.
"There were various work groups as part of this Task Force, Environmental Initiatives, Inter-active Play, Literacy, Storybook Themes, and Animals. About 30 people participated in this.
"These work groups met for about 8 weeks and filed recommendations to Storybook management.
"The recommendation from the Animals sub-committee was that the wild animal portion of the zoo be phased out and improvements made for the remaining domestic animals.
"City Council later passed a motion that the zoo would be modified over time, which would include transferring animals out. It was noted that this is a lengthy process that may take several years, as indeed it has.
"This was in an open Council meeting.
"So ~ there has been a lot of civic engagement and open discussion, and this has not been done in secret."
Storybook Gardens first opened in 1958 amid much fanfare. To read a comprehensive history of Storybook Gardens by historian Carling Marshall-Luymes, CLICK HERE.
1290-CJBK-AM is holding a London Theme Song contest ($1,000 cash prize), CJBK, Jan. 20
Civic Meetings in London, ON, Mon. Jan. 23 to Fri. Jan. 27
Another Londoner questions council's commitment to 'citizen engagement' Jan. 20
STATUTORY BALLOT QUESTION: "Are you in favour of the discontinuance of the fluoridation of the public water supply of this municipality?"
THOUGHT DU JOUR: Even if you support local water fluoridation, you should also support the right of Londoners to vote on the matter via a ballot question during the 2014 municipal election ~ noting the last ballot question regarding water fluoridation was 45 years ago in 1967 when the vast majority of Londoners alive today were either not born yet or not of legal voting age.
As Dr. William Hirzy, Senior Vice President of the EPA's Professionals Headquarters Union, put it, "if this stuff [hydrofluosilicic acid] gets out into the air, it’s a pollutant; if it gets into the river, it’s a pollutant; if it gets into the lake, it’s a pollutant; but if it goes right straight into your drinking water system, it’s not a pollutant. That’s amazing!"
VIDEO: Peanut butter falls in love with Jam
VIDEO: Snooze you lose 'cause I've got news for you, YT, Jan. 19
VIDEO: An interview with Dr. Hardy Limeback regarding water fluoridation, Part 1 of 3, YT, Jan. 17
Water fluoridation: Benefits and risks, FC, Jan. 17
Ontario's Fluoridation Act sets out the process to put fluoride into Ontario's public drinking water and also for its removal
Added Communication regarding water fluoridation public participation meeting on Jan. 25, 2012, at Centennial Hall
Chair and Members
Civic Works Committee
The Corporation of the City of London
c/o the City Clerk's office
Re: There's considerable scientific evidence demonstrating that water fluoridation is dangerous, unnecessary and unethical
Incredibly, Dr. Bryna Warshawsky, Associate Medical Officer of Health at the Middlesex-London Health Unit (MLHU), publicly stated on the radio a few months ago that there's NO scientific evidence to cause us concern about water fluoridation.
In this regard, please note the scores of scientific studies cited below from an article by Dr. Hardy Limeback, BSc, PhD, DDS ("Why I am now officially opposed to adding fluoride to drinking water"), one of Canada's leading authorities on preventive dentistry and water fluoridation, to judge for yourself whether or not there's any scientific evidence that water fluoridation is harmful to human health.
You can read many of the individual scientific studies and reports cited below, online by Googling them.
The MLHU's fall-back position is, as I understand it, due to the relatively low levels of fluoride in London's drinking water, there is no cause for concern. But scientific studies also indicate that fluoride and its associated toxins accumulates in our tissue and organs.
One of the tenets of modern medicine is that it's unethical to medicate an adult (with all of their mental faculties) against their will. Water fluoridation of our drinking water is clearly "mass medication" based on the local authority of a ballot question from 45 years ago (1967).
At the very least, Londoners deserve a new ballot question regarding water fluoridation during London's 2014 civic election ~ noting the majority of Londoners alive today were not of voting age in 1967.
At first, positive change seems impossible, then improbable, then inevitable.
Water fluoridation less effective in the late 1980's and the 1990's.
Water fluoridation cessation studies:
Attwood D, Blinkhorn AS. Dental health in school children 5 years after water fluoridation ceased in south-west. Scotland. Dent J. 1991 Feb;41(1):43-8.
Kobayashi S, Kawasaki K, Takagi O, Nakamura M, Fujii N, Shinzato M, Maki Y, Takaesu Y. Caries experience in subjects 18-22 years of age after 13 years' discontinued water fluoridation in Okinawa. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1992 Apr;20(2):81-3.
Kalsbeek H, Kwant GW, Groeneveld A, Dirks OB, van Eck AA, Theuns HM. Caries experience of 15-year-old children in The Netherlands after discontinuation of water fluoridation. Caries Res. 1993;27(3):201-5.
Seppa L, Karkkainen S, Hausen H. Caries frequency in permanent teeth before and after discontinuation of water fluoridation in Kuopio, Finland. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1998 Aug;26(4):256-62.
Kunzel W, Fischer T. Caries prevalence after cessation of water fluoridation in La Salud, Cuba. Caries Res. 2000 Jan-Feb;34(1):20-5.
Burt BA, Keels MA, Heller KE. The effects of a break in water fluoridation on the development of dental caries and fluorosis. J Dent Res. 2000 Feb;79(2):761-9.
Comparison of fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities
Brunelle JA, Carlos JP. Recent trends in dental caries in U.S. children and the effect of water fluoridation. J Dent Res. 1990 Feb;69 Spec No:723-7; discussion 820-3.
Ismail AI, Shoveller J, Langille D, MacInnis WA, McNally M. Should the drinking water of Truro, Nova Scotia, be fluoridated? Water fluoridation in the 1990s. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Jun;21(3):118-25.
Jackson RD, Kelly SA, Katz BP, Hull JR, Stookey GK. Dental fluorosis and caries prevalence in children residing in communities with different levels of fluoride in the water. J Public Health Dent. 1995 Spring;55(2):79-84.
Slade GD, Davies MJ, Spencer AJ, Stewart JF. Associations between exposure to fluoridated drinking water and dental caries experience among children in two Australian states. J Public Health Dent. 1995 Fall;55(4):218-28.
Kumar JV, Swango PA, Lininger LL, Leske GS, Green EL, Haley VB. Changes in dental fluorosis and dental caries in Newburgh and Kingston, New York. Am J Public Health. 1998 Dec;88(12):1866-70.
Angelillo IF, Torre I, Nobile CG, Villari P. Caries and fluorosis prevalence in communities with different concentrations of fluoride in the water. Caries Res. 1999;33(2):114-22.
Decline of caries is not all due to fluoride
Bratthall D, Hansel Petersson G, Sundberg H. (1996) Reasons for the caries decline. What do the experts believe? Euro J Oral Sci 104:416-422.
de Liefde B. The decline of caries in New Zealand over the past 40 years. N Z Dent J. 1998 Sep;94(417):109-13.
Birkeland JM, Haugejorden O, Ramm Von Der Fehr F. Some factors associated with the caries decline among norwegian children and adolescents: age-specific and cohort analyses. Caries Res. 2000 Mar-Apr;34(2):109-16.
Krasse B. From the art of filling teeth to the science of dental caries prevention: a personal review. J Public Health Dent. 1996;56(5 Spec No):271-7.
Dental fluorosis is now an epidemic
Leverett D. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities—a preliminary investigation. J Public Health Dent. 1986 Fall;46(4):184-7.
Pendrys DG, Stamm JW. Relationship of total fluoride intake to beneficial effects and enamel fluorosis. J Dent Res. 1990 Feb;69 Spec No:529-38; discussion 556-7.
Szpunar SM, Burt BA. Evaluation of appropriate use of dietary fluoride supplements in the US. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1992 Jun;20(3):148-54.
Riordan PJ. Perceptions of dental fluorosis. J Dent Res. 1993 Sep;72(9):1268-74.
Clark DC. Appropriate use of fluorides in the 1990's. J Can Dent Assoc. 1993 Mar;59(3):272-9.
Clark DC. Trends in prevalence of dental fluorosis in North America. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994 Jun;22(3):148-52.
Lalumandier JA, Rozier RG. The prevalence and risk factors of fluorosis among patients in a pediatric dental practice. Pediatr Dent. 1995 Jan-Feb;17(1):19-25.
Pendrys DG, Katz RV, Morse DE. Risk factors for enamel fluorosis in a nonfluoridated population. Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Apr 15;143(8):808-15.
Limeback H, Ismail A, Banting D, DenBesten P, Featherstone J, Riordan PJ. Canadian Consensus Conference on the appropriate use of fluoride supplements for the prevention of dental caries in children. J Can Dent Assoc. 1998 Oct;64(9):636-9.
Kumar JV, Swango PA. Fluoride exposure and dental fluorosis in Newburgh and Kingston, New York: policy implications. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1999 Jun;27(3):171-80.
Rozier RG. The prevalence and severity of enamel fluorosis in North American children. J Public Health Dent. 1999 Fall;59(4):239-46.
Fluoride ingestion delays tooth eruption and may simply delay tooth decay
Kunzel VW. [Cross-sectional comparison of the median eruption time for permanent teeth in children from fluoride poor and optimally fluoridated areas]. Stomatol DDR. 1976 May;5:310-21.
Virtanen JI, Bloigu RS, Larmas MA. Timing of eruption of permanent teeth: standard Finnish patient documents. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994 Oct;22(5 Pt 1):286-8.
Campagna L, Tsamtsouris A, Kavadia K. Fluoridated drinking water and maturation of permanent teeth at age 12. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 1995 Spring;19(3):225-8.
Nadler GL: Earlier dental maturation: fact or fiction? Angle Orthod 1998 Dec;68(6):535-8.
Krook L, Maylin GA, Lillie JH, Wallace RS. Dental fluorosis in cattle. Cornell Vet. 1983 Oct;73(4):340-62.
Smith CE, Nanci A, Denbesten PK. Effects of chronic fluoride exposure on morphometric parameters defining the stages of amelogenesis and ameloblast modulation in rat incisors. Anat Rec. 1993 Oct;237(2):243-58.
The anti-caries benefit from swallowed fluoride is miniscule compared to the post-eruptive topical effects.
Heifetz SB, Proskin HM. Serendipitous results of a pilot study: precaution indicated. J Clin Dent. 1995;6(1):117-9.
Burt, B.A. (1994). Letter. Fluoride, 27, 180-181.
Carlos, J.P. (1983). Comments on Fluoride. J.Pedodontics. Winter, 135-136.
Fejerskov O, Thylstrup A, Larsen MJ. Rational use of fluorides in caries prevention. A concept based on possible cariostatic mechanisms Acta Odontol Scand.1981;39(4):241-9.
Levine, R.S., (1976). The action of fluoride in caries prevention: a review of current concepts. Brit. Dent. J. 140, 9-14.
Martens LC, Verbeeck RM. [Mechanism of action of fluorides in local/topical application]. Rev Belge Med Dent. 1998;53(1):295-308.
Featherstone JD. Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1999 Feb;27(1):31-40.
Limeback H. A re-examination of the pre-eruptive and post-eruptive mechanism of the anti-caries effects of fluoride: is there any anti-caries benefit from swallowing fluoride? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1999 Feb;27(1):62-71.
Fluoridated water is associated with an increase risk for bone fracture
Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Miles TP, Brody JA, Stiers W, Rimm AA. Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture. US white women aged 65 years and older. JAMA. 1990 Jul 25;264(4):500-2.
Sowers MF, Clark MK, Jannausch ML, Wallace RB. A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with fluoride exposure. Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Apr 1;133(7):649-60.
Cooper C, Wickham CA, Barker DJ, Jacobsen SJ. Water fluoridation and hip fracture. JAMA. 1991 Jul 24-31;266(4):513-4.
Danielson C, Lyon JL, Egger M, Goodenough GK. Hip fractures and fluoridation in Utah's elderly population. JAMA. 1992 Aug 12;268(6):746-8.
Jacobsen SJ, Goldberg J, Cooper C, Lockwood SA. The association between water fluoridation and hip fracture among white women and men aged 65 years and older. A national ecologic study. Ann Epidemiol. 1992 Sep;2(5):617-26.
Jacqmin-Gadda H, Commenges D, Dartigues JF. Fluorine concentration in drinking water and fractures in the elderly. JAMA. 1995 Mar 8;273(10):775-6.
Hillier S, Inskip H, Coggon D, Cooper C. (1996) Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture. Community Dent Health Suppl 2:63-8.
Karagas MR, Baron JA, Barrett JA, Jacobsen SJ. Patterns of fracture among the United States elderly: geographic and fluoride effects. Ann Epidemiol. 1996 May;6(3):209-16.
Papadimitropoulos EA, Coyte PC, Josse RG, Greenwood CE. Current and projected rates of hip fracture in Canada. CMAJ. 1997 Nov 15;157(10):1357-63.
Feskanich D, Owusu W, Hunter DJ, Willett W, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Morris S, Spate VL, Colditz G. Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. Epidemiology. 1998 Jul;9(4):412-6.
Allolio B, Lehmann R. Drinking water fluoridation and Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999;107(1):12-20.
Kurttio P, Gustavsson N, Vartiainen T, Pekkanen J. Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Oct 15;150(8):817-24.
Hillier S, Cooper C, Kellingray S, Russell G, Hughes H, Coggon D. Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study. Lancet. 2000 Jan 22;355(9200):265-9.
Fluorosilicates, lead, arsenic, radium and other harmful contaminants in our fluoridated water are toxic
Denzinger HF, Konig HJ, and Kruger GE 1979 No. 103 sept/Oct issue of 'Phosphorus and Potassium'
Lyman GH, Lyman CG, Johnson W. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination. JAMA. 1985 Aug 2;254(5):621-6.
Finkelstein MM. Radium in drinking water and the risk of death from bone cancer among Ontario youths. CMAJ. 1994 Sep 1;151(5):565-71.
Moss ME, Kanarek MS, Anderson HA, Hanrahan LP, Remington PL. Osteosarcoma, seasonality, and environmental factors in Wisconsin, 1979-1989. Arch Environ Health. 1995 May-Jun;50(3):235-41.
Maki-Paakkanen J, Kurttio P, Paldy A, Pekkanen J. Association between the clastogenic effect in peripheral lymphocytes and human exposure to arsenic through drinking water. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1998;32(4):301-13.
Masters RD, Coplan M. Water treatment with Silicofluorides and Lead Toxicity. Intern J of Environ Studies 1999 56:435-449
Moss ME, Lanphear BP, Auinger P. Association of dental caries and blood lead levels. JAMA. 1999 Jun 23-30;281(24):2294-8.
Kurttio P, Pukkala E, Kahelin H, Auvinen A, Pekkanen J. Arsenic concentrations in well water and risk of bladder and kidney cancer in Finland. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Sep;107(9):705-10.
Finkelstein MM. Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer: a risk assessment. Am J Ind Med. 2000 Jul;38(1):8-18.
Saffiotti U, Ahmed N. Neoplastic transformation by quartz in the BALB/3T3/A31-1-1 cell line and the effects of associated minerals. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 1995 15(6):339-56.
Studies reporting a link between fluoride and cancer
-some show a trend for increase risk of bone cancer in young males
Zeiger E, Shelby MD, Witt KL. Genetic toxicity of fluoride. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1993;21(4):309-18.
Cohn, P.D. (1992). "An Epidemiologic Report on Drinking Water and Fluoridation". New Jersey Department of Health, Trenton, NJ.
Bucher JR, Hejtmancik MR, Toft JD 2d, Persing RL, Eustis SL, Haseman JK. Results and conclusions of the National Toxicology Program's rodent carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride. Int J Cancer. 1991 Jul 9;48(5):733-7.
Hoover RN "Fluoridation of Drinking Water and Subsequent Cancer Incidence and Mortality" In Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs. US Public Health Service, pp E1-E51.
Tohyama E. Relationship between fluoride concentration in drinking water and mortality rate from uterine cancer in Okinawa prefecture, Japan. J Epidemiol. 1996 Dec;6(4):184-91.
Lee JR. Fluoridation and Bone Cancer. Fluoride 1993;26(2):79-82.
Yiamouyiannis JA. Fluoridation and cancer: The biology and epidemiology of bone and oral cancer related to fluoridation. Fluoride1993;26(2):83-96.
Galanti MR, Sparen P, Karlsson A, Grimelius L, Ekbom A. Is residence in areas of endemic goiter a risk factor for thyroid cancer? Int J Cancer. 1995 May 29;61(5):615-21.
Grandjean P, Olsen JH, Jensen OM, Juel K. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992 Dec 16;84(24):1903-9.
Tsutsui T, Ide K, Maizumi H. Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured human oral keratinocytes by sodium fluoride. Mutat Res. 1984 May;140(1):43-8.
Aardema MJ, Gibson DP, LeBoeuf RA. Sodium fluoride-induced chromosome aberrations in different stages of the cell cycle: a proposed mechanism. Mutat Res. 1989 Jun;223(2):191-203.
Scott D, Roberts SA. Extrapolation from in vitro tests to human risk: experience with sodium fluoride clastogenicity. Mutat Res. 1987 Sep;189(1):47-58.
Publications arguing against the link between fluoride and cancer. Why?
-failure to recognize in most cases that hydrofluosilicic acid (and its radium and arsenic contaminants), not pure sodium fluoride, was used to fluoridate water
-the increase in risk from 1 ppm fluoridated water for all cancers is low, for osteosarcomas, it is extremely low, but it should still be detectable with sufficient sample sizes
Chilvers C. Cancer mortality and fluoridation of water supplies in 35 USA cities. Int J Epidemiol 1983;12(4):397-404.
Shupe JL, Bruner RH, Seymour JL, Alden CL. The pathology of chronic bovine fluorosis: a review. Toxicol Pathol. 1992;20(2):274-85; discussion 285-8.
Freni SC, Gaylor DW. International trends in the incidence of bone cancer are not related to drinking water fluoridation. Cancer1992;70(3):611-618.
Clemmesen J. Alleged association between artificial fluoridation of water supplies and cancer: review. Bull. WHO 1983;61(5):871-883.
Cook-Mozaffari P, Doll R. Fluoridation of Water Supplies and Cancer Mortality 2. Mortality Trends After Fluoridation. J Epidemiol Community Health 1981;35(4):233-238.
Doll R, Kinlen L. Fluoridation of water and cancer mortality in the U.S.A. Lancet 1977;1(Jun):1300-1302.
Griffith GW. Fluoridation and Cancer Mortality in Anglesey Wales Uk. J Epidemiol Community Health 1985;39(3):224-226.
Kinlen L, Doll R. Fluoridation of Water Supplies and Cancer Mortality 3. a Reexamination of Mortality in Cities in the Usa. J Epidemiol Community Health 1981;35(4):239-244.
Hoover RN, McKay FW, Fraumeni JFJ. Fluoridated drinking water and the occurrence of cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1976;57(4):757-768.
Walker AR, Cleaton-Jones PE, Richardson BD. Fluoridation and Cancer. S Afr Med J 1981;60(23):878-879.
Thomson WM. Dental health: water fluoridation, hip fracture, osteosarcoma--recent evidence. N. Z. Pharm. 1997;17(Nov):40-42.
Jackson RD, Kelly SA, Noblitt TW, Zhang W, Wilson ME, Dunipace AJ, Li Y, Katz BP, Brizendine EJ, Stookey GK. Lack of effect of long-term fluoride ingestion on blood chemistry and frequency of sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1997;29(3):265-71.
Fluoride is neurotoxic
Hu YH, Wu SS. Fluoride in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with fluorosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1988 Dec;51(12):1591-3.
Holland, R.I. Fluoride inhibition of protein synthesis. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 1979 3:701-705.
Jope RS. Modulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by NaF and aluminum in rat cortical slices. J. Neurochem. 1988 51:1731-1736.
Kay AR, Miles R, Wong RKS. Intracellular fluoride alters the kinetic properties of calcium currents facilitating the investigation of synaptic events in hippocampal neurons. J. Neurosci. 1986 6: 2915-2920.
Varner JA, Jensen KF Isaacson RL. Toxin-induced blood vessel inclusions caused by the chronic administration of aluminum and sodium fluoride and their implications for dementia. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1997 825: 152-166.
Mullenix PJ, Denbesten PK, Schunior A, Kernan WJ. Neurotoxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995 Mar-Apr;17(2):169-77.
Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL. Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Res. 1998 Feb 16;784(1-2):284-98.
Varner JA, Horvath WJ, Huie CW, Naslund HR, Isaacson RL. Chronic aluminum fluoride administration. I. Behavioral observations. Behav Neural Biol. 1994 May;61(3):233-41.
Zhao LB, Liang GH, Zhang DN, Wu XR. Effect of high fluoride water supply on children's intelligence. Fluoride 1996 29:190-192.
Li, XS, Zhi JL, RO. Effect of fluoride exposure on intelligence in children. Fluoride 1995 28(4):189-192.
Luke JA. Effect of fluoride on the physiology of the pineal gland. CariesResearch 1994 28:204.
Behavior not affected by fluoride?
Morgan L, Allred E, Tavares M, Bellinger D, Needleman H. Investigation of the possible associations between fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and childhood behavior problems. Pediatr Dent. 1998 Jul-Aug;20(4):244-52
Fluoride affects reproduction
Dominguez L, Diaz A, Fornes MW, Mayorga LS. Reagents that activate GTP-binding proteins trigger the acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. Int J Androl. 1995 Aug;18(4):203-7.
Hoffman DJ, Pattee OH, Wiemeyer SN. Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings. Toxicol. Lett. 1985 26: 19-24.
Eckerlin, R.H., Maylin, G.A., Krook, L., and Carmichael, D.T. Cornell Ameliorative effects of reduced food-borne fluoride on reproduction in silver foxes.Vet. 1988 78 75-91.
Narayana MV, Chinoy NJ Reversible effects of sodium fluoride ingestion on spermatozoa of the rat Int J Fertil Menopausal Stud 1994 Nov-Dec;39(6):337-46.
Messer HH, Armstrong WD, Singer L. Fertility impairment in mice on a low fluoride intake. Science. 1972 Sep 8;177(52):893-4.
Haesungcharern A, Chulavatnatol M. Inhibitors of adenylate cyclase from ejaculated human spermatozoa. J Reprod Fertil. 1978 May;53(1):59-61.
Susheela AK, Jethanandani P. Circulating testosterone levels in skeletal fluorosis patients. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1996;34(2):183-9.
Kumar A, Susheela AK. Effects of chronic fluoride toxicity on the morphology of ductus epididymis and the maturation of spermatozoa of rabbit. Int J Exp Pathol. 1995 Feb;76(1):1-11.
Nicol CJ, Zielenski J, Tsui LC, Wells PG. An embryoprotective role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in developmental oxidative stress and chemical teratogenesis. FASEB J. 2000 Jan;14(1):111-27.
No fluoride effect on reproduction
Merkley JW, Sexton TJ Reproductive performance of White Leghorns provided fluoride Poult Sci 1982 Jan;61(1):52-6.
Fluoride can affect thyroid hormones and, therefore, many other organs
Susa M. "Heterotrimeric G proteins as fluoride targets in bone (Review). Int J Mol Med 3(2):115-126 (1999).
Caverzasio J, Palmer G, Suzuki A, Bonjour JP. Mechanism of the mitogenic effect of fluoride on osteoblast-like cells: evidences for a G protein-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation process. J Bone Miner Res. 1997 Dec;12(12):1975-83.
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Fluoride enters the placenta and may cause birth defects
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Fluoride may affect the immune system
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Gutierrez J, Liebana J, Ruiz M, Castillo A, Gomez JL. Action of sodium fluoride on phagocytosis by systemic polymorphonuclear leucocytes. J Dent. 1994 Oct;22(5):279-82.